Spinal Cord Injury, which is a devastating neurological condition, is characterized by varying degrees of paralysis, loss of partial or complete sensations and other problems. This was once considered to be "An ailment not to be treated" in the Edwin Smith papyrus dated 5000 years ago.

The current prevalence of SCI is 2, 50,000 to 5, 00,000 individuals being affected annually worldwide. This rise in the incidence of SCI is what pushes us forward to look for alternate options for treatment keeping the conventional ones aside.

At NeuroGen Brain and Spine Institute, with our excellent team of skilled doctors and therapists, with a zeal to deliver better results time and again, we bring to you stem cell therapy for spinal cord injuries.

A total of 250 NeuroGen Spinal cord injury patients are today living happy, independent lives. Nothing pleases us more than seeing you back in your element.



OUR SUCCESS STORIES

  • A girl with a spinal cord injury patient performs at a dance show.
  • A contractor with spinal cord injury slowly returns back to routine.
  • After two years of being completely bed ridden, a farmer returns back to his business post stem cell therapy.
  • A school teacher paralyzed below his waist due to a spinal cord injury hopes to come back to his classroom soon after stem cell therapy.

What is a Spinal Cord Injury?

The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back and forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs when there is any damage to the spinal cord that blocks communication between the brain and the body. After a spinal cord injury, a person's sensory, motor and reflex messages are affected and may not be able to get past the damage in the spinal cord. In general, the higher on the spinal cord the injury occurs, the more dysfunction the person will experience.


What are the causes of a spinal cord injury?

SCI results from a trauma to the vertebrae, ligaments or disks of the spinal column that causes damage to the spinal cord. The occurrence of a SCI could either be traumatic or non-traumatic. A traumatic injury may stem from a sudden, traumatic blow to the spine that fractures, dislocates, crushes or compresses one or more of the vertebrae. The commonly listed causes of traumatic SCI include:-

  • Motor vehicle accidents
  • Football
  • Falls
  • Gymnastics
  • Violence
  • Unsupervised sport activities

A non traumatic SCI may be caused due to arthritis, cancer, inflammation, infections, or disk degeneration of the spine.


What are the symptoms associated with a spinal cord injury?

Whether the SCI is traumatic or non-traumatic the damage affects the nerve fibers passing through the injured area. This damage leads to the clinical manifestations that occur during SCI. SCI may result in the following signs and symptoms:-

  • Loss of movement
  • Loss of sensation, including the ability to feel heat, cold and touch
  • Loss of bowel or bladder control
  • Exaggerated reflex activities or spasms
  • Changes in sexual function and sexual sensitivity
  • Pain or an intense stinging sensation caused by damage to the nerve fibers in your spinal cord
  • Difficulty breathing, coughing or clearing secretions from your lungs in case of higher levels of spinal cord injury.

Depending on the severity of the damage that occurs, SCI may be 'complete' or 'incomplete'. In case of a complete injury, all the ability to control movement below the spinal cord injury is lost, whereas in the case of an incomplete injury, some motor or sensory activity below the affected area is seen. Additionally, the paralysis that occurs in SCI can be referred to as 'quadriplegia' (affects arms, hands legs, trunk and pelvis) and 'paraplegia' (affects part of the trunk, legs and pelvis).


What are the treatment options available for a spinal cord injury?

The central nervous system (CNS) i.e. the brain and the spinal cord is capable of regenerating after any injury, but is not sufficient enough to reverse the completer damage caused, and hence the damage that occurs to these tissues is often considered to be as irreversible.

Current medical sciences provide facilities that aim at repairing the spine but no surgery or medication repairs the nerve damage that occurs in the spinal cord. The treatment available includes surgery to decompress and stabilize the injury and management of secondary complications. Despite the surgery, many patients will still experience some discomfort, which may be recovered to some extent with regular rehabilitation and the use of assisted devices Rehabilitation programs combine physical therapies with skill-building activities and counseling to provide social and emotional support.

Stem cell therapy offers several highly attractive strategies for Spinal cord injury. Stem cells are blank cells which reproduce, migrate, and differentiate to form different tissues and organs of the body. It has a great potential as a treatment for spinal cord injury.


How stem cell therapy works in Spinal cord injury

During a spinal cord injury, there is an increased inflammation or damage of the nerve cells. The damaged nerve cells, release several chemical messengers that attract the immune cells of the body in the area of the damage. The cells of the immune system destroy not only the damaged nerve cells but also the healthy cells leading to further increased inflammation.

When administered at the sub acute stage that is within a period of six months from injury stem cell therapy helps to check the inflammation and therefore reduces the secondary damage to the tissue. It also helps in neuroprotection and neuroregeneration forming new synapses and axonal sprouting which may lead to the development of new neurons. If the SCI is at a chronic stage, stem cell therapy works in improving the function of the existing tissue through angiogenesis and neuro protection.

Stem cell therapy plays a major role in the repair and replacement of neurons and glial cells that carry electrochemical impulses called as action potential. These action potentials are imperative for transmission of information to and fro between the brain and the spinal cord. Further, they help in the repair of the myelin sheath surrounding the nerve cells that protects them and increases the speed of nerve transmission. They also release neurotrophic factors, cytokines (chemical messengers) and other molecules that help in tissue repair and building new blood supply. This in turns forms an ideal environment for formation of new nerve cells at the site of injury.


The NeuroGen Outcome

It has been a long standing belief that patients with paralysis and other motor problems following a spinal cord injury (SCI) will remain wheelchair bound or bedridden for the rest of their lives. Now with the emerging era of stem cell therapy we can make a difference in the quality of life of these patients and help them get back to their feet once again.

At NeuroGen we have treated over 250 patients with Spinal cord injury and have assisted them to lead independent lives.

An individual affected with a spinal cord injury faces a myriad of complications that affect his daily functioning. However, post stem cell therapy our patients have shown improvements in trunk control, standing balance, sitting balance, spasticity, sensation, bladder movements and postural hypotension.


Out of the 110 patients that we examined, with chronic thoracolumbar injury and paraplegia, 91% showed great recuperation in their observed clinical symptoms.

Out of the 50 patients that were reported to have cervical injury and quadriplegia, 74% of the patients exhibited progress in their clinical conditions.

The improvements that our patients demonstrated can further be correlated with the increased activity of the nervous tissue in the affected areas with help of their FMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scans. A FMRI is a functional neuroimaging technology that helps in measuring brain activity.


Objective radiological Improvements (Brain FMRI) after stem cell therapy in spinal cord injury


Pre stem cell therapy FMRI showing no activity in the frontal areas of the brain


Post stem cell therapy FMRI showing new activity in the frontal areas of the brain suggesting a positive response to the treatment

Stem cell therapy is a safe and effective form of treatment to improve sensory and ambulatory function in patients of paraplegia and quadriplegia following spinal cord injury, who have not improved despite all medical surgical and rehabilitation treatment.

What is the difference between paraplegia & Quadriplegia?

Paraplegia can be generalized as losing control of movement and sensation from the waist down, the term Quadriplegia includes loss of function in the upper body, arms and hands.

What is the difference between a complete and incomplete injury?

Complete' describes injuries where there is effectively no transmission of signals across a spinal cord lesion, with no voluntary control of movement or perception of sensations below the lesion. 'Incomplete' injuries are those where some of the pathways across the spinal cord lesion are undamaged. The outcome can be extremely variable and depends on which parts of the spinal cord are damaged.

Do people with SCI ever get better?

It is possible for some function to recover after the spinal cord injury.It is important that the primary aid or measures to minimize the injury should be taken immediately. This helps in preventing secondary injuries and reduce severity of the problem.

At the time of injury, the spinal cord swells. When the swelling goes down,either spontaneously, or due to medications or due to removal of compression, some functioning may return over a period of time.This is especially true in incomplete injuries, functioning may return as late as 18 months after the injury. There are major advances happening in the research field today, such as stem cell therapy, which can help improve signaling and functioning in a SCI patient.

Is there a cure for SCI?

Most body parts and organs can repair themselves after they are injured. However the central nervous system cannot. It is difficult to repair damage caused to the brain and spinal cord.. Nevertheless the damage caused by an SCI can be reduced by limiting immediate cell death and reducing the inflammation of the injured cord. Attempts to regenerate function in the damaged area are focusing on regrowing nerves, blocking the mechanism that stops neurons from re-growing themselves, inserting new cells and bypassing the damaged area.

What is life expectancy after SCI?

Life expectancy is not reduced because of spinal cord injury, per se. Complications due to the injury and if proper after care is withheld, leads to mortality. Complications, such as chronic kidney failure, chest infections, deep vein thrombosis, may lead to premature death. These can be avoided by taking proper care, preventing urinary tract infections, bed sores, chest physiotherapy and other physical therapy.

What care does a patients/caretaker of a SCI need to take after the injury? What are the “MUST KNOWS”?

In our experience, the treatment focus is on surgery/fixing of the vertebra. Caretakers and patients need to be also counseled about, what to expect after injury.

Must know 1) The injury evolves over a period of 6 months. First, the hands and legs would be loose or flaccid. Over a period of time, they will become stiff and spastic. This is expected and the natural evolution of the condition

Must know 2) Rehabilitation of physiotherapy should be started as soon as advised by the surgeon. Passive movement of the limbs is essential to prevent blood clotting in the legs (deep vein thrombosis).

Must know 3) Patient needs to be turned every 2 hours, to prevent bedsores. Additional, special type of beds can be used (but they are not substitutes for turning).

Must know 4) Prevention of urinary tract infection: consult a urologist, drink lots of fluid and take care of catheter hygiene. In paraplegics, since hands are functioning, take advice regarding self intermittent catheterization.

How sexuality is affected by spinal cord injury and is it possible to conceive a child?

Sexual function is generally affected in a patient with spinal cord injury, to varying extent. However, it is possible to rehabilitate the patient, with the help of an andrologist. In our experience, we have seen that males with sexual dysfunction have been able to have intercourse, in a modified way, with help of medicines.

Child bearing is possible in a female with spinal cord injury. In a male with SCI, spontaneous conception has been seen in few spouses. Assisted reproduction is a possibility, which should be considered, otherwise.

What is the role of rehabilitation and how can NeuroGen help us?

Neurorehabiltition has a major role in patients with spinal cord injury. It helps in getting the patient on the way to leading an independent life.

At NeuroGen, we have all rehabilitation experts under one roof. Physiotherapy, occupational therapy, psychological counseling, along with expert advice on urological issues, bedsores, sexual rehabilitation, all is available under one roof.

Along with that, newer treatment options, such as stem cell therapy is also provided under the expert guidance of a neurosurgeon.

What is the role of stem cell therapy in spinal cord injury?

Stem cells hold potential for treating spinal cord injuries. Transplantation studies in animals have shown that a transplantation of stem cells or stem-cell-derived cells may contribute to spinal cord repair by:

  • replacing the nerve cells that have died as a result of the injury
  • generating new supporting cells that will re-form the insulating nerve sheath (myelin) and act as a bridge across the injury to stimulate re-growth of damaged axons
  • protecting the cells at the injury site from further damage by releasing protective substances such as growth factors, and soaking up toxins such as free radicals, when introduced into the spinal cord shortly after injury
  • preventing spread of the injury by suppressing the damaging inflammation that can occur after injury

How does stem cell therapy work?

The biological task of stem cells is to repair and regenerate damaged cells. Stem cell therapy exploits this function by administering these cells in high concentrations directly in and around the damaged tissue, where they advance its self healing and repair.

Are there ethical concerns surrounding adult stem cell research and therapy?

Bone marrow transplantation has been used successfully for genetic disorders of blood, such as sickle cell anemia, thalessemia, as well as cancers such as leukemia. Since our therapy uses these very cell, which are harvested from the patient’s own body (autologous cells), there are no major ethical concerns. Ethical concerns are primarily on the use of embryonic stem cells (which we do not use).

Is the treatment painful?

The therapy is done under local anesthesia and a mild sedation. There is no significant pain or discomfort during or after the procedure.

Does the treatment have any side effects?

Stem cell therapy is minimally invasive and reasonably safe. None of our patients have shown any neurological deterioration so far in connection with the stem cell therapy itself. Some side effects, such as headache (spinal headache) lasting 3-4 days which is generally self limiting, neck/back pain, vomiting, some mild rash or pain at the site of bone marrow aspiration/stem cell injection may occur. However, like any other medical or surgical treatment unexpected complications are always a possibility. These complications may be related to the medicines given, the stem cell procedure, the anesthesia, and the rehabilitation or to any of the preexisting medical or neurological conditions.

How long will it take me to know that I have benefitted from the treatment?

Maximal improvements are seen around 3-6 months after the treatment. However, in many patients there are slow progressive improvements that continue for several months/years later. Most patients do show some immediate improvements also i.e. before the discharge, in some of their symptoms.

Is the transplantation of the stem cells done once or more than once?

The decision to do the therapy a second time is taken after seeing the progress/improvements after the first therapy. If the patients show some encouraging improvement, then the case is reviewed by the entire medical and rehabilitation team and a second treatment may be recommended. This may be done anytime between 3-6 months of the first therapy.

Can other treatments be taken at the same time?

We will review what other medications the patient is already on. In most cases we do not discontinue any already going on treatment. However this is decided on a case by case basis. Blood thinners like aspirin, clopidrogel, warfarin, etc needs to be stopped. Please inform us about any medications you are taking beforehand.

How much improvement will the patient have?

This is difficult to predict, since this a new therapy. It depends on multiple factors such as age of patient, type of illness, duration of illness and extent of rehabilitation taken after the treatment.

We have treated over 250 spinal cord injury (SCI) patients at NeuroGen BSI with stem cell therapy. We have published 2 studies of our clinical results in SCI one of thoracolunbar injury and another of cervical injury

The first study published in “The Journal of Neurorestoratology” included 110 patients with chronic thoracolumbar injury and paraplegia and reported that 91% of the patients had shown clinical improvements. The second study published in “The Journal of Neurological disorders” included 50 patients of chronic cervical SCI and quadriplegia and reported that 74% of the patients showed clinical improvements.

Improvements were recorded in various symptoms like sensation, spasticity, muscle tone, bladder/bowel function, trunk control, ambulation and activities of daily living.

Our data is regularly published in various medical and scientific journals (available for reading on our website) . You are strongly advised to study these before proceeding with treatment.

Spinal Cord Injury Patient Performs At A Dance Show

A civil engineer by profession, MG was 35 years old when she met with a vehicular accident. It was a devastating incident. Her mother & aunt did not survive and it left her barely hanging on to life.

Her lower spine (L1-L2) bone was broken and compressed. There were multiple fractures in the right arm and leg. An artery on the right side of the forearm had ruptured. She had to undergo surgery for spine stabilization, following which the doctors advised constant rehabilitation for her various complications. Slowly, she recovered slight power in sensation below the waist with touch sensation all over the upper thigh.

A year after this life-altering event, M heard of stem cell therapy as a treatment option for her condition. She visited NeuroGen Brain and Spine Institute and was convinced that this therapy had a chance to improve her life. When she was admitted, a thorough physical, psychological, clinical evaluation was conducted.

It was reported that she had no movement or sensation below L2 ie the waist. There was thinning of both legs, they were loose resulting in low to almost-no tone. Her muscle power was graded at 3 in both right and left hips and knees. There was no power in either of her feet. Her right side of the body had become completely non-functional, because the fracture was not healing. She had become completely dependent on her family members for daily activities. Transferring of body weight was not possible, because of which she became wheelchair bound. She made use of self-catheterization during the night and voluntarily used to empty her bladder by intra abdominal pressure. Her score on the Functional Independence Measure scale was 53.

She underwent stem cell therapy and continued intensive rehabilitation. Slowly and steadily, her muscles became stronger. She was able to transfer her body weight on her own. She could shift to the edge of the bed and transfer from the wheelchair to the bed & back. Even rolling on the bed and sitting up from lying position became an independent activity. Strength in the hip muscles also improved. Soon, she started walking between parallel bars.

3 months after stem cell therapy, with rigorous rehabilitation, her upper body became stronger. Her abdominals and back extensors regained some power because of which, she could sit for a longer time without any spinal brace.

Her arms and hands became more functional. She was able to do dressing independently, for both upper and lower body. She started writing and drawing. She also developed writing skills in her left arm to help go back to a regular life as soon as possible.


Her FIM score increased from 53 to 66.

M was determined to bring her life back to normal as much and as soon as possible. She started developing additional skills to compensate for the disability. She made her left arm more functional and learnt how to write with the left hand.

With rehabilitation, she concentrated on improving her condition.

At the end of another 3 months, muscles of the hip and knee, especially gluteals and hamstrings increased in power from Grade 3 to Grade 3++.From using a KAFO, she shifted to using an AFO. She also started walking with a walker with minimal assistance of a care taker.

One year after stem cell therapy, she was able to walk with a stick and AFO independently.

Medical advances like stem cell therapy coupled with motivation and a desire to live wholly empowered her to overcome the disability. She started helping in household activities such as cutting vegetables, etc. With the help of therapists and dancers, she trained to go on stage and perform for a dance show. Her performance served as an inspiration to others in similar situations and proved that disability can neither completely restrict mobility nor dampen the individual's spirit to live a purposeful and dignified life.


SCI Case Report 2

A 41 years old contractor, he had a fall from a height from his construction site in late 2010, injuring his lower back (D12) leading to paralysis down the waist with no sensation and bladder and bowel control. He was immediately hospitalized and surgery was done for spine stabilization as there was partial cord damage with breaking of lower vertebrae bone at D12 level. Once he was operated, he recovered in terms of having partial recovery in the sensations in the upper thigh and could apprecpriate the pain sensations around the hip joint. He was rehabilitated and showed improvement in his bed mobility and could get of his own in the bed. Still he was not independent in transfers and ambulation and never attempted to stand even. He also used condom catheter for urinary incontinence.

With all these inabilities, he decided to undergo Stem Cell Therapy hoping for his further recovery and underwent pre investigations in MRI showing marked myelomalacia at D11-D12 and EMG report showing evidence of active and severe motor degeneration affecting the bilateral L12345 S1 fibers suspecting of root level lesion with S1 fibers shows evidence of very early ongoing reinnervation. Within a week of intensive rehabilitation, he could find his stamina was boosted and he could achieve standing balance and could walk with the help of walker & calipers with one person's assistance, making him confident about himself. He improved in his functional independence measure (FIM) scoring from 87 to 95. He learnt intermittent catheterization under the urologist's care, which made him independent socially.

3 months after Stem Cell Therapy, he became independent in walking with walker & calipers and could appreciate pinching sensation around both the hips. He improved in his transfers from bed to chair, wearing the splints and coming to standing position on the walker from bed.

After 6 months of Stem Cell Therapy, he could walk with elbow crutches independently and could climb stairs with elbow crutch with help of side railings. He improved further in his transfer activities from bed to floor, floor to bed, floor to standing with walker and transferring in the car showing his upper limb strength improving further. His functional independence measure (FIM) after 6 months increased from 87 to 118. He could climb stairs from minimal assistance to complete independence. His bladder control improved after 6 months of Stem Cell Therapy and now he can pass the urine by himself and residual urine which is about 100cc he removes it with self intermittent catheterization. His EMG report which was repeated after 6 months of Stem Cell Therapy showed the evidence of motor unit potentials in bilateral S1 fibers.

Thus, it builds the hope that Stem Cell Therapy and Rehab when worked together shows improvement in the area of impairment thereby repairing the damage and enhancing the recovery


Shift from indwelling catheter to CSIC after 3 years

Although V was a farmer by profession, he came from an entrepreneurial background. His family ran multiple businesses of farming, tractor dealership and renting, poultry, etc. He lived a normal, healthy life.

Until when he was 27 years, he noticed numbness in the left hand and leg as well as right side of the head. On consultation with a neurosurgeon, investigations were carried around which revealed that the vertebrae of the neck were joined to each other. This phenomenon had occurred since birth. He also had a non-growing swelling kind of lesion around the neck region. Just a short 2 months after his marriage, he underwent surgery to relieve the compression on the vertebrae and drain out the swelling. However, although the surgery was successful, it left him completely paralysed from the upper chest region. All 4 limbs and trunk became affected. His life had shattered. For 2 years after that he became completely bed-ridden and had lost all hope of recovery.

Until one day, he heard of stem cell therapy and came to NeuroGen Brain and Spine Institute. Even though the senior therapists at NeuroGen were doubtful of his recovery, his will power and faith persuaded him and them to take the opportunity.

During evaluation, it was reported that his muscle tone in both the legs was high which made the body very rigid. There was no sensation below the chest, the lower limbs were more severely affected than the upper limbs. He had a constant indwelling catheter as there was no bowel and bladder sensation. With practically no sensation in either of the 4 limbs, he became dependent on care-givers for all his activities of daily living.

But stem cell therapy in combination with rehabilitation worked wonderfully in improving his condition. Although completely unexpected, tightness in the muscles reduced significantly. The constant bend in his elbow relaxed and he was able to stretch his arm. He became able to lift the arms and started performing overhead activities. His limbs became strong enough to help him get up from lying position on his own, with minimal assistance. He started sitting without support for longer periods of time. He started walking with calipers and a walker with minimum assistance.

Over a period of 6 months to one year, with constant rehabilitation, he developed movements around the shoulder and elbow especially the triceps. His wristbecame stronger than before. His sitting balance improved which could be appreciated as he developed abdominal contraction.He was able to feel filling sensation in the bladder. He started doing the CSIC every 4 hours and could shift from indwelling catheter to CSIC after 3 years. He slowly started standing independently for a few minutes. Activities such as upper body dressing, brushing teeth, eating and drinking became much easier and he could perform them independently for the first time after 3 years. Once he was transferred to the wheelchair, he started moving it around on his own. With increased strength in his arm, he started maneuvering the wheelchair around the whole house, including the bathroom. His movements on both the sides of lower limbs started developing, especially on the Right side of hip flexors and quadriceps.

Stem cell therapy has given a huge boost to his condition. Despite the disability, V is trying to bring his life back to normal.He has taken up a gas agency dealing, as well as poultry farming. With repeated treatment, his incapacity has reduced drastically and this has given him the motivation to live a fruitful, independent life.


"Reduce Dis – ability and Improve Ability"

A school teacher of Maths for 8th-10th standard. In 2008, at the age of 42 years, he had a fall in the well, to the depth of 40 ft. This fall altered the course of his life.

He became paralyzed below waist. He lost all sensation in his legs, including all control in bowel & bladder sensations. When he was taken to the hospital and examined, it was found that the spinal cord was partially damaged; the lower vertebrae bone at D12 level has broken. He underwent surgery for spine stabilization. The surgery helped him recover partially. There was some sensation in the upper thigh as well as pain sensations around the hip joint. With rehabilitation, his strength improved. He could get up from the bed on his own. However, he could not transfer his body weight from one position to the other. Standing up on his feet became impossible. For bowel and bladder, a condom catheter had to be used. Over a period of time, he also developed Myositis Ossificans on the left side.

He had to stop teaching. He lost his motivation and direction in life. He began to live aimlessly, trying to cope with the drastic change in his life.

But soon, destiny brought another bend in his journey. While browsing through the internet one day, he came across stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury. On further reading, he discovered that stem cell therapy followed by rehabilitation has helped many people who were facing similar situations. After consulting the doctors at NeuroGen, he learned that there was a chance for improvement in his condition, with no significant side effects. He decided to take that chance.

The doctors and therapists thoroughly evaluated his condition prior to the therapy. An MRI scan was carried out. It showed full thickness myelomalacia at D11-L1. An EMG investigation showed evidence of active and severe motor degeneration affecting the bilateral L12345 S1 and right L1 fibers.

He underwent stem cell therapy and one week of intensive rehabilitation. This gave a boost to his stamina. As a result, in just one week, he was able to sit statically with better balance. His hip joint mobility and strength improved, enabling him to independently transfer his body weight from wheelchair to the bed and back.

Over the period of 3 months of continuous rehabilitation, his condition improved slowly. His dynamic sitting balance became better. His tendency to lean towards the left side improved, he could balance himself in the centre while sitting. His tolerance to sitting also improved, he would sit without support and for longer periods of time while travelling. Same level transfers and even ground to wheelchair transfers became possible. In the toilet, he required minimal support while transferring weight. The left hip ROM, which was earlier restricted in 10 flex position because of Myostis Ossificans, could come to neutral position. On evaluation on MMT, his hip muscles improved from Grade 2+ to Grade 2++ and hip adductors muscles improved from Grade 1+ to Grade 1++.

His upper limbs also became stronger, which helped in transferring. He began to ambulate with the help of elbow crutches. Slowly, he attempted climbing stairs by himself.

His bladder control also recovered partially. Condom catheter was removed and shifted to intermittent catheterization. He could sense movement of the catheter and could voluntarily empty his bladder using pressure with only 10 ml residual urine remaining in the bladder.

Sensations in lower parts of the body became enhanced as compared to earlier. He could feel burning and tingling sensations around the tip of penis, foot and anal region. His erection activity improved in terms of strength & time of erection and feeling of stroking, there was positive development in intercourse ability.

His functional independence measure (FIM) rose from 73 to 113 in 3 months.

6 months after stem cell therapy, with ongoing rehabilitation, and support from elbow crutches, he could walk independently and could climb stairs with the help of side railings.

His bladder control improved further, passing urine all by himself became possible. He was also able to remove the residual 100 cc through self intermittent catheterization.

Sexual ability became better, he could maintain erection for the length of intercourse.

He regained enough functional ability and confidence to be able to ride a hand operated motorbike. He started teaching again.

Dedication & determination, fueled by care of doctors, helped him reclaim the will & the subsequent ability to live a purposeful life. Stem cell therapy gave him the means to do it and rehabilitation gave him the strength to do it.

Thus, it builds the hope that Stem Cell Therapy and Rehab when adopted together, can help to reduce the dis-ability and improve the a-bility.